SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Digital Manufacturing—Just-in-Case or Just-in-Time

As the semiconductor chip shortage around the world shows no signs of abating in the imminent future, I was drawn to this headline: “How Toyota Dodged the Chip Shortage” from Bloomberg Businessweek on April 12. It reported the ways and means that led to Toyota’s success in weathering the supply chain disruptions. While its rivals are missing the product delivery, the company’s past experiences that prompted implementation of its contingency plan have helped it mitigate the impact of today’s global chip shortage on the production and delivery of cars in the global marketplace. Vividly, this is a timely business case as well as a use case to ponder.

Under today’s dynamic global-macro environment and the emerging digital manufacturing platforms, what will or should change?

Regardless of whether the global chip shortage is a result of pandemic or from unanticipated market supply-demand imbalance, it is warranted to deliberate on solutions to eschew recurring events in the manufacturing sector. One plausible question to ask is, “What are the lessons learned from the success of Toyota’s ability to keep its plants humming as other automakers shutter plants?” First, there is value in truly learning from the lesson by effectively taking actions. Toyota’s past encounter during the 2011 earthquake-triggered tsunami that wreaked havoc on its production capabilities (including the supply chain disruptions) has brought out its actions in scrupulously examining its supply chain. The company learned the lesson by acting. This time around, the company has benefited tremendously by previous astute actions in implementing a comprehensive system throughout its supply chain.

In deciphering the supply chain strategy and tactics[1], in broad strokes, it boils down to six key words: visibility, predictivity, identifying, monitoring, communicating, and balancing. These are positioned in the to-do list calling for planning and actions to dodge future supply chain challenges.

hwang_filler_0721.jpg

Visibility: A crucial question to address is the level of visibility throughout the supply chain. In the intricate supply chain network, knowing the direct suppliers is the starting point, not the end point, to acquire an adequate visibility of the supply chain. Understanding and knowing the second-, third- or even fourth-tier suppliers is also a part of the equation of supply chain management to gain adequate visibility and transparency.

Predictivity: It is not hard to look back to make conclusions, but it is dauntingly demanding to predict the future accurately. However, in supply chain management, what level of predictability is required is a necessary-evil question to tackle. The better the visibility, the more thorough planning, the higher level of predictability can be achieved.

Identifying: To identify a list of key parts for an end-use product is easier said than done; it takes knowledge and effort to make a “right” list. In the Toyota case, the automaker came up with a list of about 1,500 parts it deemed to be necessary to secure alternatives for or to stockpile.

Monitoring: Set a monitoring system in motion that gauges the network of suppliers that produce those key parts to ensure planned delivery from the chain of suppliers—another deliberate and elaborate effort. In tasking, one important question to ask is, “What is the technology employed to monitor the chain of supply?” Timely adopting of evolving technology, to leverage the capabilities of a digital tool to facilitate data acquisition and the flow of digital information in supply chain, is key to an agile operation.

Communicating: The following all play an essential role in the integrity of a supply chain: Effective and efficient communication between the OEM and Tier 1 suppliers; the data flow between the OEM and the Tier 1 suppliers; communication between the Tier 1 suppliers and their network to include Tiers 2, 3, 4; and the feed-back loop.

Balancing: To a manufacturer in producing and delivering a given product, inventory management is just as important as supply chain management because the inventory directly impacts the bottom line of a business. Reducing and minimizing the inventory of a part/component of a given product is an ongoing effort. Questions to address are:

  1. Do all strategic raw materials (with sound justification) have alternate source(s)?

  2. Do all mission-critical components have alternate source(s)?

  3. Which parts/components call for stockpile? For those stockpiled parts/components, what is the “days in inventory” and what is the “dollar inventory” that can be justified?

Synchronizing with the holistic manufacturing strategy, be it supplied locally or globally, the goal is to reach an optimal level of inventory. It is an intricate balancing act to achieve both a secure supply chain and an optimal inventory management, which requires knowledge, know-how, and effort.

Just-in-Time or Just-in-Case
As the global landscape continues to change, the future remains the most precious commodity. Charles F. Kettering, a famed American inventor, and the founder of Delco of General Motors, conveyed it well:

My interest is in the future, because I am going to spend the rest of my life there.”

Looking at the future, the manufacturing infrastructure is becoming more intricate; the swift and timely delivery of products to end-users (customers) is paramount to a viable business.

Going forward, under the dynamic global-macro factors and the burgeoning digital manufacturing platforms, the construct that is solely based on just-in-time inventory management as a stand-alone practice could be proven inadequate. Considering both just-in-time and just-in-case appear to be a pragmatic model to operate in the digitized enterprise; perhaps it is a “comforting” approach as well.

It is hoped that this article will spark deeper and wider thoughts and actions about the future supply chain enterprise and its role to business viability, competitiveness, and ultimately the prosperity.  

Reference

  1. “Rethinking Manufacturing—Bracing and Embracing Post-Pandemic Decade,”  by Dr. Jennie S. Hwang, SMT007 Magazine, pp. 10–16, July 2020.

 This column originally appeared in the July 2021 issue of SMT007 Magazine.

 

Back

2021

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Digital Manufacturing—Just-in-Case or Just-in-Time

07-20-2021

Under the dynamic global-macro factors and the burgeoning digital manufacturing platforms, the construct that is solely based on just-in-time inventory management as a stand-alone practice could be proven inadequate. Considering both just-in-time and just-in-case appear to be a pragmatic model to operate in the digitized enterprise; perhaps a “comforting” approach as well.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Ebullient Trade Events Going Virtual

02-04-2021

Jennie Hwang reflects on past and current versions of CES and IPC APEX EXPO, and outlines her two presentations at APEX.

View Story
Back

2020

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Joint Industry Standard IPC J-STD-00-Electronic Solder Alloys, Part 2

10-01-2020

In Part 2 of her column series on requirements for electronic-grade solder alloys and fluxed and non-fluxed solid solders for electronic soldering applications, Jennie Hwang addresses questions raised regarding the subject industry standard IPC J-STD-006. She also summarizes relevant background information, the options for plausible naming systems, and the logic behind the decision to adopt the current naming system.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Rethinking Manufacturing–Bracing for and Embracing a Post-Pandemic Decade

07-28-2020

Against the potent backdrop of current events, how should our industry respond? How should we manage and rethink manufacturing? And what are the main issues at hand in near-term and long-term horizons? Dr. Jennie Hwang explores these questions, as well as three tangible areas of business and manufacturing.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Smart Factory Implementation—How Smart Is Smart Enough?

04-13-2020

As we are moving further into the Industry 4.0 era, rigidity is out, and flexibility is in; stiffness is out, and agility is in; and sluggishness is out, and swiftness is in. Dr. Jennie Hwang explains how manufacturing companies need to develop a thorough understanding of the available technologies that can be utilized to translate business objectives into business roadmaps targeting operational excellence to produce competitive, reliable, and economic products that perform in a timely fashion in the marketplace.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Joint Industry Standard IPC J-STD-006—Electronic Solder Alloys

01-02-2020

It has been nearly two decades since the global electronics industry adopted lead-free conversion from leaded electronics. Readers who have been in the industry during this period will recognize the changes and challenges the industry has faced and appreciate the fact that taking the element lead (Pb) out of electronics has not been a straightforward path.

View Story
Back

2019

SMT Perspectives and Prospects—Revisiting Globalization: Technology, Jobs, Trade

11-21-2019

In 2004, Dr. Jennie Hwang wrote a column titled “Globalization: Technology, Jobs, Trade,” which was published in the July issue of SMT007 Magazine. Amid the protracted and roller-coaster trade uncertainty between the U.S. and China, and the renewed debate on globalization, she revisits the topic. What has changed over the last 15 years? Where do we stand today? Is globalization undergoing a retreat or reverse course?

View Story

Learn From the Wise

07-12-2019

How can we get ahead in this digital world inundated with a gargantuan amount of information available to all? More sustainably, how can we stay ahead of the curve? Knowledge and wisdom are the fuel to propel us ahead; learning from the wise is the speedier path to acquire the fuel.

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 6

05-10-2019

In this installment of this column series on the role of bismuth (Bi) in electronic products, Dr. Jennie Hwang looks at the effects of Bi on the properties and performance of solder interconnections in electronic products when Bi is not contained in the solder alloy for the SMT assembly process (Bi-absent solder alloy composition of solder paste).

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 5

03-07-2019

The fifth part of this column series addresses the most interesting, yet intricate, aspect of the subject—plausible underlying operating mechanisms among the four elements (Sn, Ag, Cu, Bi) in a SnAgCuBi system. This article features illustrations on relative elemental dosages in relation to relevant properties and performance.

View Story
Back

2018

SMT Manufacturing: Why Soldering?

11-15-2018

Upcoming AI hardware requires advanced semiconductors, packaging approaches, new architectures, increased speeds and capabilities of inference processing, and system design and manufacturing prowess continually developed to reach the interconnect density. Against this backdrop, packaging and assembly levels will continue to be critical technology and serve as the backbone of manufacturing electronic hardware to deliver desired products with enhanced miniaturization, functionality, and augmented intelligence promptly.

View Story

Artificial Intelligence: Super-Exciting, Ultra-Competitive

09-18-2018

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) have become common everyday words, however, the present reality and future potential are yet to evolve. This article looks into the key considerations and strategies to better leverage these trends that are expected to transform the manufacturing world.

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 3

08-08-2018

The third part of this column series aims to answer why SAC isn't able to become a universal interconnecting material for electronic circuits, and why a quaternary alloy system offer a more wholesome approach.

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 4

06-04-2018

Dr. Jennie Hwang's column series continues in Part 4, which addresses two pivotal questions: Why SAC is not able to be a universal interconnecting material for electronic circuits, and why a quaternary alloy system offers a more wholesome approach.

View Story

New Year Resolutions and Best Wishes

03-12-2018

The New Year stands before us, like a chapter in a book, waiting to be written. We can help write that story by setting goals. But the true challenge is to keep these goals from falling into a wish list and to know how to stick to those goals and when. I hope that in this year to come, goals give us direction in whatever we do, be it on AI, 5G, mixed reality and quantum computing or the next chip design.

View Story
Back

2017

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 2

12-08-2017

Part 2 of Dr. Jennie Hwang's article series outlines the Bi effects on 63Sn37Pb solder material, which have been substantiated by years of field performance prior to lead-free implementation. This should serve as the sound baseline for further discussion on the subject.

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics, Part 1

10-17-2017

In this column series about bismuth, Dr. Jennie Hwang starts with its elemental properties: where it is usually mined, its safety data, and application areas—in the chemical world, the metals industry, and electronics. She also writes about how bismuth compounds improve the performance some electronics devices, such as varistors.

View Story

The Role of Bismuth (Bi) in Electronics: A Prelude

08-24-2017

When it comes to considering applications in electronics and microelectronics industry, over last three decades, the industry has shied away from using bismuth (Bi), at least not in standard practices in mass production. However, an interest has surfaced recently. This article series is tailored to electronics and microelectronics industry, to provide an overview in its entirety in the areas of importance to industry applications going forward.

View Story

Do Acquisitions Bear Fruit? A Pragmatic Perspective

05-02-2017

Acquisition is an effective tool for a company’s growth as a part of corporate growth strategy; and it is one of the top fiduciary duties of a company board’s governance oversight. However, statistically, the acquisition failure rate is quite high. In her column this month, Dr. Jennie Hwang reflects on her hands-on experience as well as observations on mergers and acquisitions in the corporate world.

View Story
Back

2016

The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 5

11-23-2016

In this installment of the series on the theory behind tin whisker phenomena, Dr. Jennie Hwang completes the discussion of key processes likely engaged in tin whisker growth—crystal structure and defects.

View Story

New Year Outlook: China’s Five Year Plan

01-25-2016

In this article, Dr. Jennie Hwang writes about the latest developments in the current global economic landscape, as well as mega-technological trends, which include: the highlights of macro-economy outlook, China factor, oil dynamics, cyber security, and grand challenges in technology and the path forward.

View Story
Back

2015

A Look at the Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 3

11-05-2015

The third installation in Jennie Hwang's five-part series on tin whisker phenomena continues the discussion on key processes engaged in tin whisker growth. She discusses the energy of free surface, recrystallization, and the impact of solubility and external temperature on grain growth.

View Story

The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 2

08-06-2015

In the second part of this article series, Dr. Jennie Hwang writes that a plausible theory of tin whisker growth can be postulated through deliberating the combination and confluence of several key metallurgical processes.

View Story

The Theory Behind Tin Whisker Phenomena, Part 1

05-27-2015

In this first article of a five-part series, Dr. Jennie Hwang goes back to basics as she discusses the theory behind the tin whisker phenomena--the reasons and mechanisms behind its occurrence--as well as how tin whiskers can be mitigated in the plating process.

View Story

New Year Outlook: What Can We Expect in 2015?

03-04-2015

Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a long view on market thrusts in the anticipated global economic landscape, as well as mega-technological trends in selected areas deemed timely and relevant to the industry: macro-economy, oil dynamics, China factor, cybersecurity, and grand challenges in technology and the path forward.

View Story
Back

2014

2014: Year-end Review

12-31-2014

In her latest column, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang reviews how predictions in her January 2014 column actually panned out. She goes through the key sub-topics that directly or indirectly impact the industry in terms of macroeconomics, business environment, technology, and the global marketplace. By and large her 2014 outlook was on or close to target.

View Story

Tin Whiskers, Part 6, Preventive and Mitigating Measures: Strategy and Tactics

09-24-2014

In this installment of the tin whisker series, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang takes a look at the preventive and mitigating measures--the strategy and tactics. She says an effective strategy for prevention and mitigation starts with a good understanding of the causations of tin whiskers. A smorgasbord of material and technique options are offered as a guide to prevent or retard tin whiskers.

View Story

Capsulization

08-06-2014

Since lead-free implementation, concerns about tin whiskers have intensified. For the past 12 years, studies and research by various laboratories and organizations have delivered burgeoning reports and papers, and Dr. Hwang has devoted an entire series to this subject. This article aims to capsulize the important areas of the subject.

View Story

Tin Whiskers, Part 5: Impact of Testing Conditions

05-21-2014

Dr. Jennie S. Hwang says, "Real-life stresses may lead a different tin whisker behavior as in accelerated tests (temperature cycling, elevated temperature storage). The alloy-making process to achieve homogeneity needs to be taken into consideration. For an 'impurity' system, how the process that adds elements into tin could also affect the whisker propensity."

View Story

Tin Whiskers, Part 4: Causes and Contributing Factors

03-26-2014

According to Columnist Dr. Jennie S. Hwang, nucleation and growth can be encouraged by stresses introduced during and after the plating process. The sources of these stresses includes residual stresses caused by electroplatin, additional stresses imposed after plating, the induced stresses by foreign elements, and thermally-induced stresses.

View Story

New Year Outlook: What Can We Expect in 2014?

01-29-2014

In her latest column, Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a long view on market thrusts in the anticipated 2014 global economic landscape, as well as technological trends in selected areas important to the SMT industry. Readers, pay attention--her predictions for 2013 were extremely accurate.

View Story

2013, A Year-End Review

01-09-2014

For this year-in-review column, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang checks on whether her January 2013 column, "Outlook for the New Year," is on or off target. She addresses the key sub-topics that directly or indirectly impact the industry in terms of business environment, technology, and global marketplace to see how her predictions actually panned out.

View Story
Back

2013

Tin Whiskers: Concerns & Potential Impact

11-26-2013

What is the biggest concern about the growth of tin whiskers? A simple answer is "uncertainty." If or when tin whiskering occurs, what are likely sources of uncertainty or potential adverse impact? Dr. Jennie Hwang explains that concerns and impact concerning tin whiskers primarily fall into one of four categories.

View Story

Tin Whiskers: Phenomena and Observations

10-09-2013

Tin whisker reflects its coined name. It has long been recognized to be associated with electroplated tin coating and most likely occurs with pure tin. Its appearance resembles whiskers. However, whiskers can also form in a wide range of shapes and sizes, such as fibrous filament-like spiral, nodule, column, and mound.

View Story

Cyber Security: From Boardroom to Factory Floor

08-21-2013

Cyber attacks are and will continue to be a huge concern to U.S. corporations in the foreseeable future. It's a matter of when, not if. It is not industry-specific and every company will have to deal with this challenge. The earlier preparation is made, the better a company is positioned to fend off the attack.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Cyber Security - From Boardroom to Factory Floor

08-21-2013

Cyber attacks are and will continue to be a huge concern to U.S. corporations in the foreseeable future. It's a matter of when, not if. It is not industry-specific and every company will have to deal with this challenge. The earlier preparation is made, the better a company is positioned to fend off the attack.

View Story

Tin Whiskers: Clarity First

06-11-2013

Lead-free solder comprises a wide array of alloy systems and each system can be modified in numerous ways. A test scheme to represent lead-free is a daunting task with an astounding price tag. Dr. Jennie Hwang advises that any tin whisker propensity study be conducted with a specific alloy composition, as clarity is the name of the game.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Conflict Minerals: A Snapshot

04-03-2013

As the supply chain becomes increasingly complex and global, with an ever-increasing number of suppliers, full traceability of conflict minerals throughout the global supply chain is a daunting task. To comply with the SEC’s reporting and disclosure requirement, a company must formulate a comprehensive program to achieving traceability and transparency.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: SAC System, A Revisit

03-13-2013

In compliance with the RoHS Directive initiated by the EU and later deployed globally, SAC305 of SnAgCu (SAC) system has been used as a lead-free solder interconnection alloy for both second- and third-level interconnection since the implementation of lead-free electronics. After a 10-year run, Dr. Jennie Hwang takes a look at SAC305 for IC packages and PCB assembly.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Outlook for the New Year

02-06-2013

After protracted high unemployment and lack of a speedy recovery in the U.S., and in the absence of clear solutions to the Eurozone's financial crisis and China's lower manufacturing activities in 2012, will the grim global economic outlook extend to 2013?

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: 2012 Year-End Review

01-16-2013

Dr. Jennie S. Hwang compares the past year to predictions made in her January 2012 column, "What Can We Expect in 2012?" including business, technology, and global marketplace issues. She feels that, overall, 2012 was another intriguing year filled with both wanted and unwanted events.

View Story
Back

2012

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part IV

11-27-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability. The focus of this offering is the role of the phase diagram in microstructure.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part III

11-06-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: Can Microstructure Indicate a Good Solder Joint? Part I

09-11-2012

How does one examine solder joint microstructure? Is the microstructure important? This month, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang begins a series that addresses the practical aspects of solder joint microstructure and what it can tell us about solder joint reliability.

View Story

SMT Perspectives and Prospects: 100 Points on Lead-Free Performance and Reliability, Part 2

08-21-2012

In the final of a two-part series, Dr. Jennie S. Hwang takes a wide, sweeping look at the history, timeline, highlights, and future projections for lead-free manufacturing.

View Story
Back

2011

Reliability of Lead-Free System: Part II, The Role of Creep

10-26-2011

The degradation of a solder joint is inevitable. The solder joint intrinsic degradation process engages two scientific phenomena--fatigue and creep. In this article, industry expert Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues her look at the reliability of the lead-free system with a closer examination of the latter.

View Story

Reliability of Lead-Free System: Part I, Solder Joint Fatigue

09-14-2011

Industry expert Dr. Jennie S. Hwang continues her look at the reliability of the lead-free system this month with a closer examination of solder joint fatigue. Fatigue is one of the most likely culprits for material failure--regardless of metals, polymers or ceramics.

View Story
Back

2002

Lead-free Symposium at APEX

04-15-2002

Amid a variety of programs, lead-free technology was "a conference in a conference" at APEX 2002, in San Diego. The program was designed with six focal themes covering components, printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes, materials, assembly processes, test and rework, and reliability. Additionally, SMT Magazine developed an illuminative panel forum and NEMI discussed a summary report by NEMI

View Story
Copyright © 2021 I-Connect007. All rights reserved.